YIN's two-part definition focuses on the scope, process, and methodological characteristics of case study research, emphasizing the nature of inquiry as being empirical, and the importance of context to the case. The resulting value is mostly arbitrary by itself. From participant observation, to interview and now especially to the visual methodologies.
It is what you do with the information gathered that makes your research project useful. Schutt, "Investigating the Social World," 5th ed. The single number describes a large number of discrete events.
There are often much deeper psychological considerations, that even the respondent may not be aware of this is not true. Validity of research results are verified through the scrutiny of others and, as such, adherence to mechanisms that ensure rigor in data collection and analysis is vital. Qualitative research methods such as case study or field research are often used in exploratory research.
Public opinion polls that seek only to describe the proportion of people who hold various opinions are primarily descriptive in nature.
The researcher may also make subjective choice about which information to record and emphasize in the findings. Descriptive studies result in rich data that is collected in large amounts. It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected.
Journal of Advertising Research. Remember, conducting a successful survey is only half the battle. Given its fundamental nature Exploratory research often relies on techniques such as: Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large.
In the same survey they may ask various demographic questions like age, gender, income, etc. Frequency distribution bar chart. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations.
Participants or subjects may not be truthful or may not behave naturally when they know they are being observed. Exploratory research is often used to generate formal hypotheses. Advantages and disadvantages specific to the three basic types of descriptive research were covered in more detail in each of those modules in this series.
The goal is to learn 'what is going on here. This type of data can be used to assess the prevalence of conditions in a population. See chapter Five for an extensive discussion of exploratory research.
Causal studies are probably the most demanding of the three. Ecological validity refers to the extent to which research can be used in real-life situations.
Descriptive science[ edit ] Descriptive science is a category of science that involves descriptive research; that is, observing, recording, describing, and classifying phenomena. Defining a Characteristic of Your Respondents: Depending on the particular variable, all of the data values may be represented, or you may group the values into categories first e.
Case reports are a first step for providing clues to identifying a new disease or adverse health effect from an exposure or clinical experience.
Introduction to social research: There are two main categories of the observational method — naturalistic observation and laboratory observation. One case report study led to the eventual discovery of HIV. Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend.
Together with simple graphics analysis, they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data. Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound — they describe situations. Descriptive research is also known as Statistical Research. Many of the benefits and limitations of the specific descriptive research methods have been alluded to in previous modules in this series.
Following is a summary regarding both the advantages and the disadvantages of using descriptive research methodology in general.
A comprehensive study of the beadwork of the Crow Indian Nation from to contemporary times.
Between and Dr. Robert H. Lowie made repeated visits to the Crow Agency Reservation to study their traditional customs and, as a result, published the first paper on Crow Indian beadwork.
Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred.
Rather it addresses the "what" question (what are the characteristics of the population or situation being studied?). Exploratory research is research conducted for a problem that has not been studied more clearly, intended to establish priorities, develop operational definitions and improve the final research design.
Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data-collection method and selection of subjects.
It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Table 1: Case study elements and descriptors  A final, critical point when conducting case study research is the importance of careful preparation and planning, coupled with the development of a systematic implementation structure (FLYVBJERG, ; MERRIAM, ; STAKE, ; STEWART, ; YIN, ).
Descriptive research design is a valid method for researching specific subjects and as a precursor to more quantitative studies.
Whilst there are some valid concerns about the statistical validity, as long as the limitations are understood by the researcher, this type of study is an invaluable scientific tool.Descriptive research study